# 16 Qam Constellation Diagram

### The diagrams below show constellation diagrams for a variety of formats of modulation.

16 qam constellation diagram. Constellation maps for 16 qam a 16 qam 4 4 24 and b ook. This means in 16 qam each symbol represents 4 bits as mentioned in the 16 qam constellation diagram above. Typically kmod is 1 root 10 for 16 qam.

As the order of the modulation increases so does the number of points on the qam constellation diagram. It can be seen that a continuous bit stream may be represented as a sequence and divided into four groups in each of the four quadrants. A diagram shows that binary values associated with different positions for a 16 qam signal.

Constellation diagram for 16 qam. A constellation diagram for rectangular 16 qam. Each constellation point can represent bits with two bits on the i axis and two on the q axis.

It is usually a power of 2. Enjoy the videos and music you love upload original content and share it all with friends family and the world on youtube. The constellation diagrams show the different positions for the states within different forms of qam quadrature amplitude modulation.

For example 16 qam constellation points can be generated from two 4 pam signals similarly the 64 qam constellation points can be generated from two 8 pam signals. The constellation as received with noise added. Any rectangular qam constellation is equivalent to superimposing two amplitude shift keying ask signals also called pulse amplitude modulation pam on quadrature carriers.

For example if the input is 1010 then the output is 3 j 3 kmod. The two bits on the i and q arm can be gray coded as shown in the table below table. The bit sequence mapping for a 16 qam is shown below in the constellation diagram.